Gray matter volume reduction in the chronic fatigue syndrome
Floris P. de Langea, Joke S. Kalkmanb, Gijs Bleijenbergb, Peter Hagoorta, Jos
W.M. van der Meerc and Ivan Toni, NeuroImage, Volume 26, Issue 3 , 1 July 2005,
Pages 777-781 doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.02.037
We observed significant reductions in global gray matter volume in both cohorts
of CFS patients, as compared to matched control participants. Moreover, the
decline in gray matter volume was linked to the reduction in physical activity,
a core aspect of CFS. These findings suggest that the central nervous system
plays a key role in the pathophysiology of CFS and point to a new objective and
quantitative tool for clinical diagnosis of this disabling disorder.
Exercise responsive genes measured in peripheral blood of women with
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and matched control subjects.
Toni Whistler, James F. Jones, Elizabeth R. Unger and Suzanne D. Vernon
BMC Physiology 2005, 5:5, doi:10.1186/1472-6793-5-5, Published 24 March 2005
These results highlight the potential use of an exercise challenge combined with
microarray gene expression analysis in identifying gene ontologies associated
fatigue syndrome: assessment of increased oxidative stress and altered muscle
excitability in response to incremental exercise.
Jammes Y, Steinberg JG, Mambrini O, Bregeon F, Delliaux S.
The response of CFS patients to incremental exercise associates a lengthened and
accentuated oxidative stress together with marked alterations of the muscle
membrane excitability. These two objective signs of muscle dysfunction are
sufficient to explain muscle pain and postexertional malaise reported by our
Spinal Fluid Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Natelson BH, Weaver SA, Tseng CL, Ottenweller JE. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005
The results support two hypotheses: that some CFS patients have a neurological
abnormality that may contribute to the clinical picture of the illness and that
immune dysregulation within the central nervous system may be involved in this
Objective evidence of cognitive complaints in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A
BOLD fMRI study of verbal working memory.
Neuroimage. 2005 Jun 1;26(2):513-24. Epub 2005 Apr 7.
Lange G, Steffener J, Cook DB, Bly BM, Christodoulou C, Liu WC, Deluca J,
Findings showed that individuals with CFS are able to process challenging
auditory information as accurately as Controls but utilize more extensive
regions of the network associated with the verbal WM system. Individuals with
CFS appear to have to exert greater effort to process auditory information as
effectively as demographically similar healthy adults. Our findings provide
objective evidence for the subjective experience of cognitive difficulties in
individuals with CFS.
Increased neutrophil apoptosis in chronic fatigue syndrome
G. Kennedy, V. Spence, C. Underwood, J. J. F. Belch, J Clin Pathol.2004; 57:
These findings provide new evidence that patients with CFS have an underlying
detectable abnormality in their immune cells.
Peripheral cholinergic function in humans with chronic fatigue syndrome,
Gulf War syndrome and with illness following organophosphate exposure.
Faisel KHAN, Gwen KENNEDY, Vance A. SPENCE, David J. NEWTON and Jill J. F. BELCH,
Clinical Science 2004; 106:183-9.
Although there are many clinical similarities between these three illnesses, our
results indicate peripheral cholinergic abnormalities in the vascular
endothelium of only patients with CFS, suggesting that this syndrome has a
different aetiology, which might involve inhibition of vascular cholinesterase.
Acetylcholine mediated vasodilatation in the microcirculation of patients
with chronic fatigue syndrome
Spence VA, Khan F, Kennedy G, Abbot NC & Belch JJF. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes
and Essential Fatty Acids 2004; 70: 403–7. © 2004 Elsevier.
Most diseases are accompanied by a blunted response to acetylcholine but the
opposite is true for CFS. Such sensitivity is normally associated with physical
training so the finding in CFS is anomalous and may well be relevant to vascular
symptoms that characterize many patients.
Prolonged acetylcholine-induced vasodilatation in the peripheral
microcirculation of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome
Faisel Khan, Vance Spence, Gwen Kennedy, Jill J. F. Belch, Clin Physiol Funct
Imaging 2003; 23(5): 282–285
Prolongation of ACh-induced vasodilatation is suggestive of a disturbance to
cholinergic pathways, perhaps within the vascular endothelium of patients with
CFS, and might be related to some of the unusual vascular symptoms, such as
hypotension and orthostatic intolerance, which are characteristic of the
Gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with
chronic fatigue syndrome,
Journal: Journal of Clinical Pathology
2005;58:826-832, N Kaushik, D Fear , S C M Richards, C R McDermott, E F Nuwaysir,
P Kellam, T J Harrison, R J Wilkinson, D A J Tyrrell , S T Holgate and J R
Kerr. Korrespondance: email@example.com
Results: Analysis of microarray data revealed differential expression of 35
genes. Real time PCR confirmed differential expression in the same direction as
array results for 16 of these genes, 15 of which were up regulated, and one of
which was down regulated (IL-10RA). This profile suggests T cell activation and
perturbation of neuronal and mitochondrial function. Up regulation of neuropathy
target esterase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G1 may suggest
links with organophosphate exposure and virus infection, respectively.
Conclusion: These results suggest that patients with CFS have reproducible
alterations in gene regulation.
Illness and disability in Danish Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients at diagnosis
and 5-year follow-up
M. M. Andersen, H. Permin and F. Albrecht, Journal of Psychosomatic Research,
Volume 56, Issue 2 , February 2004, Pages 217-229;
CFS patients exhibit severe, long-term functional impairment. Substantial
improvement is uncommon, less than 6%. Allergies and aspects of cognition may
worsen, emotional adjustment often improves.
A report examining the experiences of severely ill people in accessing health
and social care.
Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Clinical Working Case Definition,
Diagnostic and Treatment Protocols
Carruthers et al, Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 11(1) 2003, pp.
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diagnosis based on characteristic patterns of symptom clusters, which reflect
specific areas of pathogenesis. Diagnostic and treatment protocols, and a short
overview of research are given to facilitate a comprehensive and integrated
approach to this illness. Throughout this paper, “myalgic encephalomyelitis” and
“chronic fatigue syndrome” are used interchangeably and this illness is referred
to as “ME.”
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